The Aronia - Source Of Health
Origin and Composition
The black chokeberry is relatively new kind of fruit specie for Bulgaria. It is grown mainly as a hobby culture and in small industrial plantations. Int the recent years,there is a strong interest towards the black chokeberry due to its healing and nutritional qualities.
Although the ripe fruits do not have very pleasant taste, they can be made into excellent juices, kompots (beverage made by stewing fruit in water with sugar), jams, dessert wines, medicinal preparation and colouring agents for the confectionery.
The most valuable in black chokeberry is the level of vitamin Р. Its quantity has no rival among other fruits. They are dietary and multivitamin remedy for treatment of various diseases.
- 10 – 13,5% sugars
- 1.3% malic acid and other organic acid
- 0.75% pectin substances
- 0.6% tanning substances
- 30-75mg% ascorbic acid /vitamin C/
- 2000-3000 mg % vitamin Р
- 2mg% carotene
- 0.5-0.8mg% vitamin Е
- It is also contains vitamins B1, B2, B6, B9, PP
The containing macro and micro elements are:
Healing qualities and application in medicine
The black chokeberry has a lot of iodine in it – 6 times more than in blackcurrant. According to it consistence it is similar to morello cherry, cranberry, winter apples and significantly excels the forest strawberry, raspberry and the red currant. The level of beta-carotene competes with that of carrots and sea buckthorn..
The ripe black chokeberry fruits are used, mainly for healing purposes as multivitamin remedy for hypertensions, thyrotoxicosis, cystitis, and fever.
Black chokeberry is recommended for using for prevention and healing purposes as fresh, frozen fruits or dried fruits, in the form of juices, tinned, extract, tincture, as vitamin P tablets. When boiled, the black chokeberry fruits have styptic and diuretic effect, and dried they are prescribed for dysentery. The fruits can be used to make juices and tins, and all the healing qualities are preserved during that process.
The black chokeberry is useful in hypertension stadium I and II; it is part of the redox processes due to the combination of vitamin Р and ascorbic acid. They help in different cases of bleedings and capillarotoxicosis. The sorbitol in the fruits, which serves as sugar substitute, makes the black chokeberry very good for people suffering from diabetes.
It alleviates kidney disease, low acidity gastritis, spotted fever, scarlet fever, rheumatism, allergic reactions related with anticoagulants intake, hepatitis, poisoning, weeping eczema and other skin diseases. It also lowers the cholesterine level in the blood of people suffering from atherosclerosis. Black chokeberry fruits have healing effect to hyperthyroidism and also in radiation sickness and radiation exposure. The black chokeberry fruits and juice preserve the vitamins, this way increasing the ability of the body to defend itself, stimulate the appetite, increase acidity and help the release of stomach juices and the activation of gastric enzymes. When fresh, the black chokeberry fruits and juice lower the arterial pressure in cases of hypertension. This does not affect people with normal blood pressure which allows for the black chokeberry to be consumed without any restrictions. The black chokeberry fruits medicaments are taken for treatment of P hypovitaminosis and avitaminosis.
For high blood pressure, it is useful to consume 100 gr. fruits or 50г. juice three times a day, 30 min before meals in the course of 10-30 days, dependent on the extent of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient. The black chokeberry fruits and juice must be stored at temperature of 3-5C in places protected by a direct sun light. The improper storage may result in curdle of the juice loss of its healing qualities. The efficiency of black chokeberry medicaments increases when used simultaneously with plants containing ascorbic acid (hip, blackcurrant).
Black chokeberry juice heals burnings, and is also recommended in cases of cerebral vessel sclerosis. The black chokeberry promotes homeostasis.
It is recommended for the black chokeberry fruit to be completely ripe when used as medicament. The black chokeberry juice is produced by press filtering with yield up to 60%. The vitamin Р level in it is about 0.5%
Its chemical composition and usage are similar to that of the fresh fruits. If the pressed fruits are dried, a black chokeberry medicine is produced – tablets or powder of vitamin Р, with vitamin levels up to 20%. It is used for prevention and treatment.
For hypertension and atherosclerosis treatment the black chokeberry fruits are grind with sugar in ratio 700 gr sugar and 1 kg fruits. 75 - 100 gr are taken twice a day.
For haemorrhoids, a jam is made by equal amounts of black chokeberry fruits and honey. 100 gr are taken twice a day, 30 minutes before meal.
For cold – 3 tablespoons dried fruits and blossom are poured with 1 l hot water, covered tightly and left to soak for 3-4 hours, after that it should be filtered and it used as a to induce sweat – one big cup every 2-4 hours with added a tablespoon of honey.
For prevention and treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, stomach and intestine diseases, hypertension, it is useful to drink 100 ml fresh black chokeberry juice three times a day, 30 minutes before meals.
For hypertension and atherosclerosis, a mixture of equal parts black chokeberry fruits, dandelion roots, yarrow and couch grass rhizome. A tablespoon of the mixture is added to 200 ml boiling water, left aside for 2-3 hours and then filtered; the intake is a quarter of a cup before breakfast.
For vitamin deficiency - 1 teaspoon dry fruits are poured with 400 ml hot water and left to soak for 4 hours. A cup of that tea is drunk from 2 to 4 times a day.
For body exhaustion, anemia and as a diuretic remedy - 2 teaspoons are poured with 300 ml hot water and are left to soak for an hour. Sweeten it with sugar and portion it on 3-4 intakes per day.
The same tea is used for high fever, the proportions are three parts black chokeberry blossom with a cup of hot water, left to soak for 30-40 minutes and taken 3-4 times per day.
For rheumatism and lung disease, mix five parts black chokeberry fruits, five parts hip fruits, and three parts dandelion root, 7 parts yarrow and two parts hawthorn blossom. Two tablespoons of the mixture are added to 500 ml boiling water and left aside for 5-6 hours in a tightly closed container, after which the infusion is filtered and consumed – 150 ml three times a day, an hour before meal by adding a teaspoon of honey.
Storage and processing at home
The gathered black chokeberry fruits are dried spread on a thin layer in shade or in drying room, at a temperature no higher than 60С. They are stored in cool place no more than three days after the gathering and if the temperature does not exceed 5С – up to 2 months after gathering.
For long-term storage, the fruits are gathered with inflorescences with the help of scissors and after that they are thread on on a wire or sisal. Stringed up thi way, the fruits are dried in shade.
The quality standard for dried black chokeberry fruits requires for them to contain 25% extract substances and more than 18% moisture. It is recommended during the drying processes to be careful for presence of wither and fungus. The damaged fruits are replaced in order not to damage the production.
The storage period and consummation of dried black chokeberry fruits is no more than 2 years.
The black chokeberry fruits are excellent raw material for food industry, but people who would like to prepare delicious and healthy homemade tins and juices can use the following recipes:
Black chokeberry jam:
The black chokeberry fruits are processed, washed and blanched in boiling water for two minutes. Immediately after that spilled on the hot sugar syrup prepared in advance and heated to boiling and after that are stewed 5-7 minutes on a low heat after that they are removed from the fire and left to stay for 8 hours. The jam is continued to reduce and in the end the citric acid is added. After jam got cold it should be closed in dry jars. For 1 kg fruits are necessary 1-1.2 kg sugar and 1 g citric acid.
Black chokeberry rub through sugar:
The processed and well-washed fruits are blanched in boiled water for 5 minutes after that they are rub through kitchen sieve from stainless steel. The obtained mixture is mixed with sugar (1:1) mixed well and heated up to 70С after that is spilled in warm jars. They a sterilized in boiling water. For jars of 0.5l the boiling should be 20 minutes, and for jars of 1l – 25 minutes.
Dried black chokeberry:
The fruits are dried in temperature no higher than 60С in drying rooms or in the oven. They are spread on thin layer in suitable shallow vessels – sieves, trays, grids. During the fruit drying it is necessary the constant mixing.
Apple, beetroot and black chokeberry fruit:
The apples and the beetroot are washed, scald and their juice is filtered. After that, all juices are mixed, heated up to boiling, leaves of currant and raspberry are added and boiled for 5 min. It is bottled in warm indvance vessels. Apple juice – 2.5l, beetroot juice – 0,2l, black chokeberry juice – 0.3l, currant leaves – 3pcs, and raspberry leaves – 3pcs.
Black chokeberry and quince jam
The black chokeberry fruits are boiled until complete softening with a little amount of water and covered with lid. Add the sugar and stew it 10-15 minutes, after that add the pilled and chopped quinces. Boil it until it is ready and close it in jars.
Yogurt with black chokeberry and beetroot juice
The beetroot is washed, scald and the juice is filtered by it (it is easier with fruit squeezer). The yogurt is mixed with black chokeberry juice (conserved ore fresh), after that the beetroot and sugar are added. They are beaten with mixer to foam. Consume it cool. On 50 gr black chokeberry juice – 50 gr beetroot juice, 400 gr yogurt and 30 gr sugar.
Black chokeberry juice:
The fruits are squashed and after that the fragmented mass and the juice are heat up on water bath up to 40С. The juice is filtered by fruit squeezer and spilled in 1.5l bottles. Sterilized for 15-20 min after the boiling. You can leave the juice to boil and fill it in warm bottles, which are immediately sealed and encapsulated. For better taste you can add sugar (50 g for 1l juice) or apple juice (30-50%)
Black chokeberry kompot
The blanched fruits are put in jars of 0.5-1l up to 1/3 of their volume and are poured with hot 80 sugar syrup (to 1l water is added 500 gr. sugar). Poured that way, the jars are left for 2-6 hours and then sterilized for 20-25 minutes in boiling water. For the topping ,sweetened apple juice can be used (220 gr per 1 l juice). In the apple juice, the black chokeberry fruits are softer, more delicate and with more harmonious taste. You can preparer kompot with different fruits: apples, sea buckthorn, pears. In this case the amount of black chokeberry fruits should not be more than 15%.
Black chokeberry jam
Blanched and cooled fruits are poured with syrup, boiled and after that stewed till ready (20-30 min). The syrup is made by 1 kg sugar and two glasses of water per 1kg fruits. Delicious jam will be made if you add the same amount of apples chopped in pieces. For 1kg mixture put 1 kg sugar and 1.5 к glass of water. For the syrup you can use decoction of morello cherry leaves (handful leaves per 1l water).
Black chokeberry and blueberries with sugar
Equal amount of the fruits are mixed with sugar (1kg per 1 kg mixture). Store in the fridge.
Black chokeberry fruits can be stored yearly refrigerated in the freezer in t -18 to -24. Defrosted can be used for all the above mentioned recipes.
The used paragraphs are from the book of Dragan Brezovski – „The Black chokeberry –Growing and Healing Qualities”